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# Mutual stress flow theorem of electromagnetic field and extension of Newton's third law

Theoretical Physics Letters

2022 ° dd(mm) ° vol-no

https://www.wikipt.org/tphysicsletters

DOI: 0.1490/665877402.647tpl

Shrzhao Zhao

The author once developed Poynting theorem into the mutual energy theorem and mutual energy flow theorem. The author thought that the energy transferred by Poynting's theorem belongs to the self energy flow, but the self energy flow does not participate in the radiation, because the self energy flow finally returns to the radiation source through a time reversal wave. The author thought that the real energy transfer is done through the mutual energy flow. The mutual energy flow is the energy flow produced by the interaction between radiation source (light source) and absorption sink (light sink). Therefore, the author put forward the mutual energy theorem and the mutual energy flow theorem. The mutual energy flow theorem is an upgrade of Poynting's energy flow theorem. The author also updates the axioms in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. The new axioms are the principle of mutual energy, the law of conservation of energy and the principle of self energy. These three new axioms are the upgrade of Maxwell's equations in electromagnetic field theory. When it comes to interaction, it includes not only energy and energy flow, but also momentum and stress. In this paper, the idea of mutual energy is developed from mutual energy flow to momentum related quantities, such as mutual momentum and mutual stress flow. There is the conservation law of momentum in electromagnetic field theory, including Maxwell stress tensor. The author further develops the law of conservation of mutual momentum, the law of conservation of impulse and the theorem of mutual stress flow. Newton's third law is the law of action and reaction at close range. The result of this paper has extended Newton's third law to the place of action-at-a-distance.